- Holocaust and Contemporary Periods In 1931 4,040 Jews lived in Turin. In 1938 the Racial Law particularly affected the Jewish community of Turin, much assimilated to Italian life. In 1942 a bomb destroyed the interior of the synagogue. In November and December 1943, the Germans began to deport the Jews of Turin. A total of 246 Jews were deported to Auschwitz. Only 21 came back. One of them was the writer Primo Levi. Various gentiles helped the Jews in ingenious ways. Thus Dr. Coggiola of Mauriziano Hospital organized a "quarantine section" housing Jews, and the judge Germano subpoenaed Jews as witnesses in various legal processes. Jews joined the local partisan movements, such as E. Artom, political commissar of the 5th Regiment of the Giustizia and Libertà brigades, and G. Bolaffio, who was the commander of the 4th Regiment of Giustizia and Libertà. At the end of World War II 2,885 Jews were left in Turin, apart from numerous refugees who were temporarily housed in the surrounding districts. The Jewish Brigade helped restore the confidence of the community. In 1949 the synagogue was repaired. Various rabbis dominated Jewish life in Turin in the 20th century, such as Giacomo Bolaffio; Dario disegni , chief rabbi of Turin from 1924 to 1960, founder of the Margulies Rabbinical School, and editor of a translation of the Pentateuch and of the Bible; and Sergio Joseph sierra . Due to a high mortality rate (as compared with their birthrate) the Jewish population of Turin in 1970 was around 2,000 (only 0.16% of the total inhabitants). Educational institutions included a school for higher Hebrew studies, the Margulies Sierra Rabbinic School, a kindergarten, an elementary school, and a Jewish high school. The other institutions included a rest home for elderly people and an orphanage. The Jewish community of Turin continued to publish a monthly newspaper, Notiziario della Comunita' ebraica di Torino. In 2005, 924 Jews lived in Turin. The chief-rabbi was Alberto Somech. (Sergio DellaPergola / Samuele Rocca (2nd ed.) -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Mortara, Indice, passim; Milano, Bibliotheca and supplemento 1954 – 1963 (1964), index S.V. Torino; Milano, Italia, index; idem, in: RMI, 34 (1968), 295–7; G. Bachi, ibid., 12 (1938), 197ff.; B. Terracini, ibid., 164ff.; 7 (1932), 93ff.; 15 (1949), 62–77; R. Bachi, ibid., 28 (1962), 37; Roth, Italy, index; G. Volino, Condizione giuridica degli Ebrei in Piemonte prima dell'emancipazione (1904); G. Valabrega (ed.), Gli ebrei in Italia durante il fascismo (1963), 29–33; M. Benayahu, in: Miscellanea Disegni (1969), 5ff.; S. Foa, in: RMI, 16 (1950), 188ff.; 19 (1953), 542ff.; Scritti S. Mayer (1956), 89ff.; Vicende del ghetto di Torino (1963). ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: AA.VV., Ebrei a Torino, Ricerche per il centenario della sinagoga (1884 – 1984) (1984); G. Arian Levi and G. Disegni, Fuori dal ghetto, Il 1848 degli ebrei (1998); D. Colombo, "Il ghetto di Torino ed il suo antico cimitero," in: RMI, 5–6 (1975); R., Segre, The Jews in Piedmont, 1–3 (1986–90); A.M. Tedeschi Falco, Piemonte, Itinerari ebraici, I luoghi, la storia, l'arte (1994), 151.
Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.
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